# Handout 5: Operational Amplifiers

## Operational amplifiers

### Golden rules:

- No current flows into either input terminal.

- The two input terminals are always at the same voltage .

### Ideal characteristics:

- Gain = \(\infty\) (gain is infinity)

- \(v_o\) = 0, when \(v_1\) = \(v_2\) (no offset voltage)

- \(R_\mathrm{d}\) = \(\infty\) (input impedance is infinity)

- \(R_\mathrm{o}\) = 0 (output impedance is zero)

- Bandwidth = \(\infty\) (no frequency-response limitations) and no phase shift

Last updated:

January 6, 2018