• BME 444
• # Handout 1: State Space Instructions

## Steps for creating a state-space representation of a system

1. Designate a subset of all system variables as state variables.
2. For an $$n$$-th order system, write $$n$$ simultaneous first-order differential equations in terms of the state variables. These are the state equations.
3. Solve the simultaneous differential equations, given initial conditions and an input signal.
4. Algebraically combine the state variables with the system input and find all other system variables. This is called the output equation.
5. The state equations and output equation comprise the state-space representation of the system.

Last updated:
January 29, 2019