# Handout 1: State Space Instructions

## Steps for creating a state-space representation of a system

- Designate a subset of all system variables as
*state variables*.
- For an \(n\)-th order system, write \(n\) simultaneous first-order differential equations in terms of the state variables. These are the
*state equations*.
- Solve the simultaneous differential equations, given initial conditions and an input signal.
- Algebraically combine the state variables with the system input and find all other system variables. This is called the
*output equation*.
- The state equations and output equation comprise the
*state-space representation* of the system.

Last updated:

January 29, 2019